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  • Brunoni, Andre R, Hamed Ekhtiari, Andrea Antal, Paradee Auvichayapat, Chris Baeken, Isabela M. Benseñor, Marom Bikson, et al. “Digitalized Transcranial Electrical Stimulation: A Consensus Statement.” medRxiv, June 13, 2022.; Clinical Neurophysiology 143 (November 1, 2022): 154–65.

  • Clusella, Pau, Gustavo Deco, Morten L. Kringelbach, Giulio Ruffini, and Jordi Garcia-Ojalvo. “Complex Spatiotemporal Oscillations Emerge from Transverse Instabilities in Large-Scale Brain Networks.” PLOS Computational Biology 19, no. 4 (April 12, 2023): e1010781.

  • Clusella, Pau, Elif Köksal-Ersöz, Jordi Garcia-Ojalvo, and Giulio Ruffini. “Comparison between an Exact and a Heuristic Neural Mass Model with Second Order Synapses.” bioRxiv, June 16, 2022.; Biological Cybernetics 117, no. 1 (April 1, 2023): 5–19.

  • Clusella, Pau, and Ernest Montbrió. “Regular and Sparse Neuronal Synchronization Are Described by Identical Mean Field Dynamics.” arXiv, August 12, 2022.

  • Clusella, Pau, Bastian Pietras, and Ernest Montbrió. “Kuramoto Model for Populations of Quadratic Integrate-and-Fire Neurons with Chemical and Electrical Coupling.” Arxiv,; Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science 32, no. 1 (January 2022): 013105.

  • Galan-Gadea, Adrià, Ricardo Salvador, Fabrice Bartolomei, Fabrice Wendling, and Giulio Ruffini. “Spherical Harmonics Representation of the Steady-State Membrane Potential Shift Induced by TDCS in Realistic Neuron Models.” bioRxiv, December 9, 2022.; Journal of Neural Engineering 20, no. 2 (March 2023): 026004.

  • Menardi, Arianna, Simone Rossi, Giacomo Koch, Harald Hampel, Andrea Vergallo, Michael A. Nitsche, Yaakov Stern, et al. “Toward Noninvasive Brain Stimulation 2.0 in Alzheimer’s Disease.” Ageing Research Reviews 75 (March 1, 2022): 101555.

  • Mencarelli, Lucia, Lucia Monti, Sara Romanella, Francesco Neri, Giacomo Koch, Ricardo Salvador, Giulio Ruffini, Giulia Sprugnoli, Simone Rossi, and Emiliano Santarnecchi. “Local and Distributed FMRI Changes Induced by 40 Hz Gamma TACS of the Bilateral Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex: A Pilot Study.” Neural Plasticity 2022 (July 16, 2022): e6197505.

  • Ruffini, G., and G. Deco. “The 2D Ising Model, Criticality and AIT.” bioRxiv, October 22, 2021.

  • Ruffini, Giulio. “Analysis and Extension of Exact Mean-Field Theory with Dynamic Synaptic Currents.” bioRxiv, February 14, 2022.

  • Ruffini, Giulio, Giada Damiani, Diego Lozano-Soldevilla, Nikolas Deco, Fernando E. Rosas, Narsis A. Kiani, Adrián Ponce-Alvarez, Morten L. Kringelbach, Robin Carhart-Harris, and Gustavo Deco. “LSD-Induced Increase of Ising Temperature and Algorithmic Complexity of Brain Dynamics.” PLOS Computational Biology 19, no. 2 (February 3, 2023): e1010811.

  • Sánchez-León, Carlos Andrés, Guillermo Sánchez-Garrido Campos, Marta Fernández, Álvaro Sánchez-López, Javier F. Medina, and Javier Márquez-Ruiz. “Somatodendritic Orientation Determines TDCS-Induced Neuromodulation of Purkinje Cell Activity in Awake Mice.” bioRxiv, February 18, 2023.

  • Sanchez-Todo, Roser, André M. Bastos, Edmundo Lopez-Sola, Borja Mercadal, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Earl K. Miller, Gustavo Deco, and Giulio Ruffini. “A Physical Neural Mass Model Framework for the Analysis of Oscillatory Generators from Laminar Electrophysiological Recordings.” NeuroImage 270 (April 15, 2023): 119938.

  • Sanchez-Todo, Roser, Edmundo Lopez Sola, Ricardo Salvador, Maria Chiara Biagi, Gustavo Deco, and Giulio Ruffini. “TH-230. Mechanistic Understanding of Alzheimer’s Disease through Hybrid Brain Models: From Mesoscale to Macroscale, and Design of Personalized Stimulation Protocols.” Clinical Neurophysiology, Abstracts of the 32nd International Congress of Clinical Neurophysiology (ICCN) of the IFCN, September 4-8, 2022, Geneva, Switzerland, 141 (September 1, 2022): S158.

  • Vohryzek, Jakub, Joana Cabral, Yonatan Sanz Perl, Murat Demirtas, Carles Falcon, Juan Domingo Gispert, Beatriz Bosch, et al. “Design of Effective Personalised Perturbation Strategies for Enhancing Cognitive Intervention in Alzheimer’s Disease.” bioRxiv, April 20, 2023.

Giulio Ruffini

Dr. Giulio Ruffini

Dr. Giulio Ruffini obtained a BA in math and physics from UC Berkeley and a PhD in theoretical physics from UC Davis/LANL in 1995. In 2000 he and others founded Starlab to transform science into technologies with positive impact. During the last two decades (and counting) he has provided the science and technology visions for Starlab Space, Starlab Neuroscience and for Starlab's spinoff Neuroelectrics. He believes in the profound and boundary-blurring impact that mathematics, physics, and AI will have across fields.


  • Ruffini G, Fox MD, Ripolles O, Miranda PC, Pascual-Leone A. Optimization of multifocal transcranial current stimulation for weighted cortical pattern targeting from realistic modeling of electric fields. Neuroimage. 2014 Apr 1;89:216-25. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.12.002. Epub 2013 Dec 15. 

  • Design of effective personalised perturbation strategies for enhancing cognitive intervention in Alzheimer’s disease,Jakub Vohryzek, Joana Cabral, Yonatan Sanz Perl, Murat Demirtas, Carles Falcon, Juan Domingo Gispert, Beatriz Bosch, Mircea Balasa, Morten Kringelbach, Raquel Sanchez-Valle, Giulio Ruffini, Gustavo Deco,

  • Fischer, David B; Fried, Peter J; Ruffini, Giulio; Ripolles, Oscar; Salvador, Ricardo; Banus, J; Ketchabaw, WT; Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Fox, Michael D; Multifocal tDCS targeting the resting state motor network increases cortical excitability beyond traditional tDCS targeting unilateral motor cortex, Neuroimage, 157,34-44,2017, Elsevier

Gustavo Deco

Prof. Gustavo Deco

Gustavo Deco is Research Professor at the Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) and Professor (Catedrático)  at the Pompeu Fabra University (UPF) where he leads the Computational Neuroscience group. He is also Director of the Center of Brain and Cognition (UPF). In 1987 he received his PhD in Physics for his thesis on Relativistic Atomic Collisions. In 1987, he was a postdoc at the University of Bordeaux in France. From 1988 to 1990, he obtained a postdoc of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation at the University of Giessen in Germany. From 1990 to 2003, he leads the Computational Neuroscience Group at Siemens Corporate Research Center in Munich, Germany. He obtained in 1997 his Habilitation (maximal academical degree in Germany) in Computer Science (Dr. rer. nat. habil.) at the Technical University of Munich for his thesis on Neural Learning. In 2001, he received his PhD in Psychology at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich.

Jordi Garcia Ojalvo

Prof. Jordi García-Ojalvo

Obtained his PhD in statistical physics at the University of Barcelona in 1995. He did postdoctoral work at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta in 1996, working on laser dynamics, and at the Humboldt University of Berlin in 1998 as an Alexander von Humboldt Fellow, studying noise effects in excitable media. In 2003 he was IGERT Visiting Professor at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, at which time he began working in the field of systems biology. In 2008 he became Full Professor at the Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, where he had been teaching applied physics since 1991.He is Visiting Research Associate in Biology at the California Institute of Technology since 2006, and joined the Universitat Pompeu Fabra in October 2012.

  • Casal MA, Galella S, Vilarroya O, Garcia-Ojalvo J. Soft-wired long-term memory in a natural recurrent neuronal network. Chaos. 2020;30: 061101


Dr. Javier Márquez-Ruíz

Javier Márquez-Ruíz is a  Biologist and received his education by the University of Seville (Spain) in 2002. In 2008 he obtained his PhD in Physiology and Neuroscience by the University of Seville studying the behaviour of the oculomotor systems during spontaneous and pharmacologically induced sleep. In 2007 he accepted an Assistant Professor position in the Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Cell Biology at the University Pablo de Olavide, where he currently works as Associated Professor. In 2008 he received a postdoctoral research grant for working on cerebellar plasticity at the Universitè Libre de Bruxelles in Belgium.

Michael Nitsche

Prof. Michael Nitsche

Michael A. Nitsche is Director of the Dept. Psychology and Neurosciences at the Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors in Dortmund, and holds a position as scientific staff member at the Dept. Neurology of the University Medical Center Bergmannsheil, Bochum, Germany. He is a leading expert in plasticity research in humans, including non-invasive brain stimulation, neuropsychopharmacology, and cognition.

Captura de pantalla 2021-01-27 a las 13.

Dr. Min-Fang Kuo

She is currently a senior post-doc fellow in Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors. Before entering the field of neuroscience research, she received her medical degree from the Department of Medicine in National Cheng-Kung University, Taiwan in 2003, followed by her Master study in the program ‘Medical Neurosciences’ of Humboldt University in Berlin, Germany. She completed her PhD at the Georg-August-University of Göttingen in Germany, with the topic focusing on pharmacology of neuromodulation via non-invasive brain stimulation techniques. . She has received grants from different funding sources including the Ministry of Science and Technology in Taiwan, DAAD, and DFG.


Prof. Kathinka Evers

Kathinka if Professor of philosophy at the Centre for Research Ethics & Bioethics (CRB) at Uppsala University and Professor ad honoram at the Universidad Central de Chile. She conducted her doctoral studies in philosophy at Balliol College, University of Oxford, at the Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, and at Lund University, Sweden, where she received her doctoral degree in 1991. She has been a research fellow at Balliol College, University of Oxford (1994); at the Department of Philosophy and Human Rights Centre, University of Essex, Colchester (1996-97); and at Centro de Investigaciones Filosoficas, Buenos Aires (since 2012). She was invited professor at the University of Tasmania, Hobart (1999), at École Normale Supérieure on the Chair Condorcet, Paris (2002), and at Collège de France, Paris (2006-7).

Manuel Guerrero.png

Dr. Manuel Guerrero

Manuel is a sociologist and bioethicist with extensive experience in human rights. He holds a PhD in Sociology and Postgraduate Diplomas in Medical Ethics and Research Ethics. He is a researcher at the Centre for Research Ethics & Bioethics (CRB) at Uppsala University and Assistant Professor of Bioethics at the Department of Bioethics and Medical Humanities in the Faculty of Medicine and Ethics at the Centre for Applied Ethics in the Faculty of Philosophy and Humanities at the University of Chile. He has been a research coordinator, and associated researcher at the Division of Neurogeriatrics (2016-2020) at the Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society at Karolinska Institutet and is an international collaborator of its Division of Occupational Therapy.

Emiliano Santarnecchi

Dr. Emiliano Santarnecchi

Emiliano is an Assistant Professor of Neurology at Harvard Medical School (Boston, MA, USA), a Clinical research scientist at the Berenson-Allen Center for Non-invasive Brain Stimulation (Beth Israel Medical Deaconess Center, Boston - BIDMC, MA, USA), co-director of the CME course 'Introduction to Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES) In Neuropsychiatric Research' at Harvard Medical School, an affiliated Associate Professor at the Department of Physics at Northeastern University (Boston, MA, USA), director of the Network Control Laboratory at BIDMC, co-director of the Siena Brain Investigation and Neuromodulation laboratory at University of Siena (Italy), founder and director of the Neuroscience of Intelligence and Cognitive Enhancement (NiCE) international consortium at Harvard University.

  • Local and Distributed fMRI Changes Induced by 40 Hz Gamma tACS of the Bilateral Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex: A Pilot Study, L Mencarelli, L Monti, S Romanella, F Neri, G Koch, R Salvador, G Ruffini, …, Neural Plasticity 2022

  • Arianna Menardi SR, Giacomo Koch, Harald Hampel, Andrea Vergallo, Michael A. Nitsche, Yaakov Stern, Barbara Borroni, Stefano F. Cappa, Maria Cotelli, Giulio Ruffini, Georges El-Fakhri, Paolo  M. Rossini, Brad Dickerson, Andrea Antal, Claudio Babiloni, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur, Bruno Dubois,  Gustavo Deco, Ulf Ziemann, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Emiliano Santarnecchi. Toward noninvasive brain stimulation 2.0 in Alzheimer’s disease. Ageing Research Reviews. 2022;101555,

  • Sprugnoli G, Monti L, Lippa L, Neri F, Mencarelli L, Ruffini G, Salvador R, Oliveri G, Batani B, Momi D, Cerase A, Pascual-Leone A, Rossi A, Rossi S, Santarnecchi E. Reduction of intratumoral brain perfusion by noninvasive transcranial electrical stimulation. Science Advances August 2019

  • Tadayon E, Moret B, Sprugnoli G, Monti L, Pascual-Leone A, Santarnecchi E. Improving Choroid Plexus Segmentation in the Healthy and Diseased Brain: Relevance for tau-PET Imaging in Dementia. J Alzheimers Dis. 2020 (accepted).

Giacomo Koch

Dr. Giacomo Koch

Dr. Giacomo Koch is a neurologist and neuroscientist leading the non-invasive brain stimulation lab at the Santa Lucia Foundation in Rome. He has been recently appointed as Full Professor of Human Physiology at the University of Ferrrara, Italy. His main expertise is in the application of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), mainly used in combination with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and with electroencephalography (EEG). He developed novel methods based on multifocal TMS approached to investigate in real-time the activation of parieto-frontal cortical circuits and to study the mechanisms of cortico- cortical plasticity.

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